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Wednesday, November 25, 2020 | History

2 edition of Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon found in the catalog.

Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon

Lih-jong Ko

Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon

  • 101 Want to read
  • 10 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Aerosols -- Analysis.,
  • Air quality -- Oregon.,
  • Sea salt -- Environmental aspects -- Oregon.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Lih-Jong Ko.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination112 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages112
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15185055M


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Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon by Lih-jong Ko Download PDF EPUB FB2

Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon Public Deposited. (Yaquina Head) and a non-industrial site (Corvallis) in Western Oregon to characterize the aerosol composition and evaluate whether the sites are appropriate for sampling "background" marine air.

Concentrations of up to 11 species Cited by: 1. Abstract. Graduation date: Fine and coarse particles were collected for eight weeks during the\ud summer ofat a coastal site (Yaquina Head) and a non-industrial site\ud (Corvallis) in Western Oregon to characterize the aerosol composition and\ud evaluate whether the sites are appropriate for sampling "background" marine\ud air.

The impact of atmospheric aerosols on visibility and climate change as well as their toxicity depends on the size, the chemical composition, and the chemical mixing state (i.e., the spatial distribution of species within single particle) of the aerosols [24,25,30].

So far, a detailed knowledge about the aerosol composition is lacking for health. Atmospheric aerosol particles exhibit a wide range of sizes, from nanometers to micrometers, and a wide range of shapes. This chapter provides a description of the size‐dependent aerosol chemical composition in different areas of the world, characterized by different sources and environmental conditions, and of the processes affecting the chemical composition by: 2.

Abstract. Atmospheric aerosol is one of the most important factors affecting the Earth’s climatic and weather conditions. The study of the mechanisms of formation and evolution Factors influencing the atmospheric aerosol composition at two sites in western Oregon book atmospheric aerosols is of primary importance for predictions of the climatic changes on our by: Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry is a collection of papers presented at the American Chemical Society Kendall Award Symposium honoring Professor Milton Kerker, held in Los Angeles, California, on March April 2, [1] Airborne particulate composition in the western Mediterranean atmosphere was investigated by means of simultaneous sampling of PM10 (particulate matter site (Ebro basin) and an urban one (Barcelona) in eastern Spain in order to evaluate the natural and anthropogenic contributions.

The major regional particulate pollutants were nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols. PART I - 1. ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES, ROLE OF AEROSOLS. Lecture topics: • Atmospheric processes - role of aerosols • Characterisation of aerosol particles • Forces and interactions • Instrumentation and measurements • Health effects of particles • Applications • Standards and guidelines.

Factors Affecting Atmospheric Pressure 1. Altitude - The height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground level.

Temperature - The degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. Altitude Temperature Pressure Belts 1. Equatorial Low Pressure Belt. Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges.

Most forests in North America remain nitrogen limited, although recent studies have identified forested areas that exhibit symptoms of N excess, analogous to overfertilization of arable land.

Nitroge. The elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol particles has been studied widely during the last three decades. Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere, e.g.

by modifying radiation, cloud and fog formation and precipitation; even they influence human health. The reason for such measurements is to estimate the environmental impact. aerosol chemical constituents because the observed intensities are highly affected by the actual composition of the detected aerosol particle.

Two-step thermal desorption and linear ionization schemes, on the other hand, provide quantitative and linearly additive mass spectra of mixtures (i.e., each mass spectrum that is. Atmospheric aerosols originate from the condensation of gases and from the action of the wind on the Earth's surface.

Fine aerosol particles (less than 1 mm in radius) originate almost exclusively from condensation of precursor gases. A typical chemical composition for fine aerosol in the lower troposphere is shown in Figure   This is a really “big” question that deserves a long answer.

I’ll list as many factors that affect the atmosphere as I can think of, but I’m sure I won’t get all of them. Others can jump in and add to the list. I’ll start with the sun: 1. Mass of. Purchase Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry - 1st Edition.

Print Book & E-Book. ISBNHarrison et al. () measured boundary layer concentrations of total atmospheric bacteria at sites in England and found that they increased exponentially as a function of h mean temperature. CHAPTER 1.

MEASURES OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION The objective of atmospheric chemistry is to understand the factors that control the concentrations of chemical species in the atmosphere.

In this book we will use three principal measures of atmospheric composition:mixing ratio,number density, andpartial pressure. GFDL scientists aim to advance our understanding of earth’s past, present, and future atmospheric composition and climate. We develop sophisticated computer models representing the emissions, transport, chemical transformations, and sinks of trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere and stratosphere.

Aerosols that are a main factor in atmospheric corrosion can be produced by either chemical processes in the atmosphere or via ejection. Some of the common aerosols are wind dust and sea spray. There are also secondary aerosols that are generated by condensing and reacting atmospheric gases, or through the conversion of gas into particles of.

generally short. The composition of particles in this size range reflects that of the earth's surface - silicate (SiO2), iron and aluminum oxides, CaCO3 and MgCO3 over the oceans, NaCl. 10 ORIGIN OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL Aerosol dispersed condensed matter suspended in a gas Size range mm (molecular cluster) to mm (small raindrop).

ric and optical measurements of atmospheric aerosol par-ticles. Sulfate and organics are the dominant components IMPLICATIONS PM consists of hundreds of compounds that are diffi-cult to measure individually.

Therefore, for almost two decades, PM composition has been expressed in terms of three broad constituent categories (ions; elemental. atmospheric aerosol.

The number density is dominated by very small particles (10 nm). These very small particles have little mass or surface area and in general do not directly influence climate. The largest contribution to surface area (and thus scattering) come from aerosols with radii between and 1.

An increasing interest in studies of atmospheric aerosols in the context of their impact on the formation of climate, heterogeneous chemical reactions in the atmosphere affecting in particular the environmental quality, problems of visibility and human health is the cause of unusual scales of developments connected with studies of atmospheric aerosols.

than counting and sizing them. This is largely because atmospheric aerosols (in particular the organic fraction) can contain up to hundreds of compounds spanning a wide range of chemical and thermodynamic properties [Saxena and Hildemann, ]. Conventionally, aerosol chemical composition measurements involve the off-site.

July 3, — Atmospheric aerosols are tiny particles that scatter and absorb sunlight but also influence climate indirectly through their role in cloud formation. One of the largest sources of. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols (aerosols made by human activities) currently account for about 10% of the total amount, but most of this is concentrated in the northern hemisphere, especially downwind of industrial sites, slash-and-burn agricultural regions, and overgrazed grassland.

Atmospheric aerosols (or particulate matter) are solid or liquid particles or both suspended in air with diameters between about µm to about µm. • Aerosol particles vary greatly in size, source, chemical composition, amount and distribution in space and time, and how long they survive in the atmosphere.

Primary atmospheric. Aerosols influence the Earth's radiation balance 3. Aerosols indirectly influence the Earth's hydrological cycle 4. Aerosols are the primary cause of visibility degradation in polluted areas 5. Aerosols are a major component of urban smog (especially sulphates, nitrates and VOCs) - provide sites for chemical reactions to take place.

Aerosols play an important role in climate and climate change depending on their structure, size, composition and location.

Since they are transported by air currents, aerosols injected or formed in the atmosphere in one location can affect the climate in regions that are. A typical urban aerosol size/composition distribution is shown in Figure (Wall et al.

These results indicate that sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium have two modes in the pm size range (the condensation and droplet modes), and a third one over 1 pm (coarse mode). Atmospheric Aerosol and Air Pollution • 14 funded proposals relevant to aerosol/air pollution studies Science foci: –Impact of wind-blown desert dust on ecosystem functioning, precipitation, and energy budget –Climate, fires and emissions –Impact of aerosols on hydrological cycle in the Arctic (IPY endorsed) –Air quality and human health.

The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation. Aerosols represent the second largest contributor to atmospheric heating after CO2.

Aerosol optical properties are poorly understood, resulting in the largest source of uncertainty in modelling atmospheric warming and hinder the extent to which models can interpret climate phenomena. The quality of aerosol optical data is hindered by the lack of aerosolized materials with known properties.

The book potentially addresses diverse readers like academics, researchers and industrial chemists. we appreciate the editors’ intentions to bring the state-of-the- art knowledge on aerosol and atmospheric chemistry. The book may be useful to scholars who wish to investigate aerosol and atmospheric chemistry in perspective of changing.

'Atmosphere Aerosol, Phytoplankton and Its Influence on Climate Forming in the Pacific Ocean: Measurement new Methods' is a collection of new articles by young academics, students and PhD students, who participated in the 1st International Sailing Conference of Climate Forcing, held on the board of Sailing Training Ship 'Nadezhda' in the Sea of Japan and the Okhtosk Sea in August.

Aerosols influence climate in two primary ways: by changing the amount of heat that gets in or out of the atmosphere, or by affecting the way clouds form. Some aerosols, like many kinds of.

factors affecting precipitation. ocean currents. ice core dating. bubbles of air trapped in the ice provides a sample of the atmosphere at the time of the snow. eccentricity. the amount the orbit diverges from a perfect circle in a 96,year cycle.

aerosols in the air increase the amount of solar radiation that is reflected back to. Olivier Boucher's research interests include climate change, regional to global air pollution, aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions, data assimilation of satellite observations in atmospheric models for monitoring the atmospheric composition of the atmosphere, atmosphere-biosphere couplings and biogeochemical feedbacks in the Earth System, impact of irrigation on climate, impact of aviation on Reviews: 1.

Aerosol sources, composition, and removal processes. Worldwide, most atmospheric aerosol particles are produced by natural processes such as grinding and erosion of land surfaces resulting in dust, salt-spray formation in oceanic breaking waves, biological decay, forest fires, chemical reactions of atmospheric gases, and volcanic injection.

Some particles, on the other hand, have human origins. The two data sets were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) to infer the sources of PM observed at the two sites. The analysis identified nine common source-related factors: sulfate-rich secondary aerosol, cement/carbon-rich, wood smoke, motor vehicle/road dust, metal processing, nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, soil, sea salt, and.

Atmospheric aerosols increase the number of cloud droplets in clouds and make them whiter, which means that they can more effectively reflect solar radiation back into space.A 4-year record of aerosol size and hygroscopic growth factor distributions measured at the Department of Energy’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, U.S.

were used to estimate supersaturation (S)-dependent cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (NCCN). Baseline or reference NCCN(S) spectra were estimated using κ-Köhler Theory without any averaging of the measured.